– Doon Defence Academy succesfully providing the Job Opportunity in Defence & Merchant Navy.

Our experience and expertise in the field of SSB training since 2005 helped candidates who have been screened at the SSB.

When a candidate comes to DDA for training, he gets a complete experience of SSB and learns how to work with other candidates from all over the country.

A candidate learns what is expected of him from the moment he steps into the SSB center.

SSB Interview Coaching

Army/Airforce/Navy/NDA/CDS/OTA/AFSB/TGC/ACC/WSES/AFCAT/UES/10 +2 Tech/10 + 2 B.Tech/T.A/Coast Guard & CPF.

Our Mission

Doon Defence Academy specializes in imparting training for SSB Interviews for Army, Navy and Air Force. Selection Boards of NDA, CDSE, OTA, SSC, NA, AFCAT, TES, UES, TGC, Special Entry Scheme for Women, Army candidates:  (SCO), PC (SL).

Navy Candidate: CW, SD, HET

Air Force Candidate:FCP, GDOC, SEC and NCC certificate candidates for all wings

Our Vision

Doon Defence Academy has achieved an enviable and unbeatable record of success for imparting training for SSB interviews. DDA is the premier the oldest and the best academy for service selection board (SSB) interviews for officer level entry into the armed forces of India (Army, Navy and Air Force). DDA imparts training for the full tests conducted in the days, service selection Board Test, including interviews full outdoor and Psychological tests, Group Discussions etc including screening tests. The Academy has 11 years of experience in the field and has an unbeatable track record for success. DDA has the biggest obstacle training ground in India.

Why is training must for SSB Interviews?

According to Mr. Sandeep Gupta Submariner-Indian Navy (Retd), The founder/ Director of Doon Defence Academy experience, It is a common misconception that SSB’s do not perfect candidates who have undergone training, and many candidates think that with booking and here say Knowledge, they can clear the SSB Interview without any training. While this may be true for some gifted students. It is still recommended that a candidate undergoes proper training himself for the upcoming SSB Interview. Just like swimming riding a bicycle etc cannot be mastered by reading the rules and techniques in the book, the same way training for SSB Interview requires practical, and specialized training by experts. Self-training can only help in acquiring theoretical knowledge, but that alone is not sufficient. Without proper practical training and application, desired results cannot be achieved.

Learn from the Masters

Having an unbeatable record for over 9500 selections, we can safely say that we are the experts and leaders in the field of SSB Interview training since 2005. The Unmatched faculty at DDA consists of senior and experienced faculty members.

Identifying and rectifying weakness of the Students

More than 85% of the candidates, who comes to us suffer from lack of self-confidence problems which includes one kind of fear or another like stage fright, public speaking, social anxiety, physical Testing, complexes about appearance etc.

At DDA each candidates confronts his fears head on and overcomes them completely over the training schedule.

All About SSB

A candidate learns what is expected of him from the moment he steps into the SSB center. The knowledge not only mentally prepares the candidates but also highlights and prevents many travail mistakes that a candidate may not have even known he was making.

SSB Like Experience:- When a candidate comes to DDA for training, he gets a complete experience of SSB and learns how to work with other candidates from all over the country. This exposure to a large group of aspirants from different parts of the country can be very helpful in preparing candidates for the SSB. Many books in the market can be quite misleading for ignorant candidates.

Moreover, there are many tests in the SSB which are conducted in groups and require a minimum of 8-10 other participants for practice like group task, indoor planning etc. Practical tests require practical training for example, one can never practice group discussions, gets over stage fright or fear of public speaking without training in a group.

DDA offering “ Small batches ” are misleading ignorant candidates.

Officer like Quality

No amount of training can help a candidate who does not possess officer like qualities, but at DDA we guide you how to think like an officer and what is expected from an officer and how to develop OLQs in yourself. We show you how to polish and present your best qualities at the SSB. If candidate has failed previously in the SSB, the failure can create doubts in his/her mind and lead to a lack of confidence which reflects in his performance in next SSB attempt. It is important to go back to the basics and relearn everything. Our experience and expertise in the field of SSB training since 2005 helped candidates who have been screened at the SSB.

We at DDA trained a candidate both physically and mentally for the 5 days grueling testing at the SSB. Time managements and self-discipline are inculcated into the candidates. The SSB is a through and unique screening and selection system for candidates for the armed forced and it involves many complex and uncommon tests which may be baffling to a candidate without proper training. Physical aspects of testing can also be challenging.

g for some, proper training is required with proper infrastructure like open grounds, an obstacle course for practice.

General Guidelines on Tackling SSB


Upon receiving a call letter (a sample is shown in the appendix in this book), candidates successful in written test rush to the nearest coaching center and views are given therein. First of all, this approach is hurried- hence wrong, and secondly very few good/comprehensive books/guides, written by experienced SSB evaluators which are available in the market, especially by serving Military Officers, with SSB experience. This may lead to failure or premature fall- out as SSB assessors are experts in discriminating between candidates who are genuine and those who are superficial / fakes/ making it up.

There are no shortcuts to success

It is rightly said that you have to start at the base of the mountain to reach the tallest peak. Success in SSB calls for the dedicated and systematic preparation- so get up and put your heart and soul into your goal – to achieve distinction. Actually, this rule applies to all challenges of life. Your Mental Attitude helps you achieve the aim or chosen objective for which you need to plan for meticulously thus discharging your duties systematically, logically and with tact. Make your own time-table, some can study for long hours together, some do it in short bursts. Some like me study till late at night, some others like my wife believe in starting the day early-so what suits your style.

Nothing is impossible

If you believe in yourself, you can achieve what sound impossible. Remember, the battle is in the mind, so don’t let self-doubts affect you- being positive and optimistic is the secret to your will-power and the key to success. Arjuna’s indecisiveness was cleared by Lord Krishna on the battlefield itself-what we today know as the Gita was always within the human being it only needed self-realization. So, be persistent towards your desired goals and relentlessly strive hard to achieve them. The goal–post is ahead, all you need is to strike, you may miss once, but not again like Arjuna, concentrate only on your target and you will hit Bulls–Eye.

Be a Long Distance Runner

The start is always slow, but constant practice will help you reach the cherished destination soon.The systematic and sustained effort is always rewarded. For example, if you have to win a 100 meter’s hurdle race, first practice on clearing bigger hurdles, then practice on clearing short sprints- finally combine the two, keeping your objective more than what is required so the required one looks easier. To substantiate the point, here, I recall the magical words of the poet, HW Longfellow:

“The Heights of great men reached and kept, were not attained by sudden flight. But they, while their companions slept, were toiling upward in the night”.

Utilize your Person Constructively

Most of us have a tendency of living in the past, basking in the glory of yesterday, and forgetting to take mileage of the present. If you use the current time and opportunity fruitfully, you can look forward to significant returns in the years to follow. Remember the world is with you, not against you!

Learn from your Mistakes

One who works or tries is normally bound to make mistakes. Take then into your stride, as nature teaches us, that through this path (Which may be difficult)  is paved the road to success. Doesn’t child fall a number of times, before you get injured while learning to cycle before you perfect it. So, make excelling in any venture/task a habit, not worrying about results. Put your heart into your ambitions and you will definitely succeed.

Build Awareness

To start with, one must firstly know about what is going on in the environment. Selectors are not interested in knowing the dates, numbers, and statistics etc that are straight from books on general knowledge. What is needed is awareness about what’s happening around you – i.e., in the country/ its neighborhood. This calls for reading a newspaper regularly (Minimum two- one National/ English Paper, other local/vernacular, supplementing it with a good CA/ GK magazine). Additionally, listen to one two good English news channels (NDTV/ Times Now etc) to keep abreast of the latest developments. In addition, start watching popular TV shows like “We the People”, “The Big Fight”, “Karan Thapar Quizzes, Interview with Arnab Goswami etc where current topics are debated by eminent personalities.

Knowledge Gained Never goes Waste

Gone are the days, when English teaching and convent education was a privilege, only for the coveted few. Thanks to the Internet, the World Wide Web and software and hardware technologies, nothing is beyond the reach of growing millions, especially India’s aspiring middle class. In Today’s developing global world, there is plenty of opportunity and abundance of knowledge and skills to be learned and absorbed, whatever be the chosen field. Hence, candidates should strive to know the means- ends will be automatically be achieved. Remember, knowledge is like a store- house, to be recycled and utilized wherever required it never goes waste. So keep the store tidy and clean i.e., keep refreshing and updating your knowledge (your notes) about which I’d mentioned earlier in my preface.

Stop blaming Other/Organisation-Look inside yourself First

Its normal for unsuccessful candidates to blame the system for their failures, thinking they were good, but the SSB could not see their talent. My simple answer to this problem is-talent cannot remain hidden – for long. A 6 days test, with three different evaluators, having no previous interaction or relation with you, suddenly become the most important people in your life- as they will decide whether you will clear SSB or not-so an established and time- tested system cannot be wrong (having been in vogue for over 45 years now). Don’t blame the system for rejection, but try and come up to the desired level, for which you have to first understand what the system wants, Simply stated, SSB is not looking for geniuses or exceptionally brilliant people, but simple, average leaders, who can carry a team along and tackle any untoward situation with logic and arrive at a workable solution in the shortest possible time- with minimum fuss. This in-short, is the essence of SSB procedure. So you can succeed, following the adage – where there is a will, there is a way”.

Start Speaking in English, with Friends/Family Members

The medium of communication and testing in SSBs in English and this British legacy is not likely to go easily, as English and this British legacy is not likely to go easily, as English is the language of communication of officers with the Bureaucracy/ Corporate/other entities. Candidates from rural background or Hindi/ Vernacular Medium generally seem to hesitate and do not express themselves adequately- thus failing in initial screening itself. It is unfortunate but true that English, is not spoken as the mother tongue in 97% of Indian households. Therefore it important to develop English language and communication skills. This is possible, through regular practice- speak with friends/family members, who are conversant in the language. If not, make use of modern aids like interactive TV, websites, audio and video aids etc. The most glaring example is the legendary cricketer, Kapil Dev, who did not speak a word of English When he won the 1983 Cricket World Cup. Then, in 3 to 4 months, he was speaking fluent English thanks to an “English Speaking Course.” So the method of choosing is yours, the end result required is to be conversant and comfortable in the language. Reading newspapers/ magazines/ books and listening to news will also help build your vocabulary.

Build Knowledge of Service /Arm Aspiring to join

Its Imperative that you know the basics about the Arm that you wish to join. India has the world’s third-largest standing Army and is the largest volunteer force in the world. Also, if you ‘ve opted for Executive Branch in Indian Navy or Technical Branch of IAF, find out details of the service, various ranks/ technical terms, their roles, your likely job profile etc. It is often seen that candidates don’t know what they’ve applied for, is a sure case of rejection.

How a Candidate Presents Himself

Remember, “First impression is that Last Impression”. The way you present yourself matters a lot to the assessors. In the civil world, it may be normal to have a pony tail/tattoo, but understand that same is not liked in the armed forces. Though you are not expected to take a zero cut, any abnormal dressing of accessories is bound to draw everyone’s attention towards you, which is not desirable. Hence, dress up in a normal/decent way.  Gentlemen should shave and ladies must keep their hair bundle and not left loose. Service personnel are very particular about rules, regulations and discipline.  Hence, be conscious of the Do’s and dont’s that you will be briefed about (during the introduction stage by the conducting officer) and make sure you adhere to them meticulously. This is expected from all gentlemen/ladies and hence they are keenly observed by all assessors during the tests and otherwise too.       

Exercise Regularly and Keep Fit

Simple exercises like jogging, sit-ups, pull-ups and push-ups etc will help to build strength and stamina. This comes handy in the physical tasks, especially GTO tests, But don’s over-exert yourself, as any normal person can do them.

Schedule of SSB Test Series


Unlike other organization, the selection process in armed forces is very elaborate and is done over five days. Three different assessors, namely the IO, GTO and the Psychologist test each candidate from three different perspectives and arrive at their respective decision. Thereafter on the last day (conference), they all sit together and discuss each case to arrive at the final decisions.

The Schedule of testing is as under:

Normally candidates are to report by the afternoon and are picked up from the railway station/ bus stand. On reporting, they are given an open briefing by the duty GTO, which covers the testing schedule, do’s and don’s etc. That done, candidates are to fill up Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ) form, which forms the basis of psychological testing and interviews. The importance of this form and how to go about filling this are covered in the Interview chapter.

Screening Test: 

Candidates are put through a screening test which comprises of intelligence tests followed by PPDT. Based on performance in these tests, some  candidates are retained for stage 2 testing and others are allowed to return home the same day. Hence, qualifying in this test is most important.

Psychological Test:

On day 2, candidates screened in on day 1 are put through psychological tests, which comprise of Word Association  Test (WAT), Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and Situation Reaction Test (SRT). In addition, the candidates are asked to describe themselves (Self-Description). On completion of these tests, interview will start.

GTO Test I:

Candidates go through Group Testing on day 3 and 4. Candidates are divided into groups of 6 to 10 each, depending upon total candidates screened in. On day 3, Group Discussion (GD), Group Planning Exercise (GPE), Progressive Group Task (PGT), Group Obstacle Race (GOR), Half Group Task (HGT) and Lecturette are conducted. In some cases even an Individual Obstacles may be conducted on day 3, depending upon weather/ engagement of the assessor. On completion of GTO tests, interviews of the remaining candidates, ie those who have finished their GTO test series commence.

GTO Test II: 

On day 4, the remaining tasks of Group Testing like an Individual Obstacle, Command Task and Final Group Task are conducted. On completion of group testing, interview of remaining  candidates are completed.


Last day/ conference day-wherein each candidates is called in turn for a final look and final decision is arrived at. Results are announced by afternoon and candidates not recommended are allowed to leave.

Medical Tests:

Successful candidates are put through medical in the nearest military hospital- average it takes 4 to 5 days to complete. Failures in medicals are allowed to appeal to the nearest military hospital within 45 days of their test. Details are given below.

Medical Exam Procedure


Recommended Candidates at SSBs- After the SSB results, recommended Candidates appear before the medical board for their medical board. It takes 4 to 5 days for the concerned Military Hospital to complete the process and there after candidates are dispersed. NDA candidates are examined both for Army and Navy unless otherwise instructed and endorsement of fitness status is made accordingly. President medical board will guide the candidates for Appeal procedures. In case declared unfit, candidates may seek the advice of President Special Medical Board for review/ appeal.

Procedure of Appeal Medical Board –The appeal Medical Board is helped at one of the following hospitals-

(a) Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt.

(b) Command Hospital, Pune, Kolkata, Lucknow, Jaipur, Chandimandir and Udhampur

(c) Command Hospital, Air Force, Bangalore.

(d) INHS, Ashvini, Mumbai.

Candidates will report for medical examination within the stipulated period i.e., 42 days from the date last examined by the Special Medical Board for re-examination along with the receipted copy of the MRO/TR as directed by the President Medical Board. Endeavour will be to complete the Medical Board in one day.

Review Medical Board(RMB):

Based on the merit of the case, a candidate declared unfit by the Appeal Medical Board, may still challenge the proceeding and may be granted review of medical proceedings. Any candidate desiring for a review should address the request to Recruiting Directorate (Personnel & Coord), Army Headquarters, West Block III, RK Puram, New Delhi, with a copy to the President of Appeal Medical Board within one day of the holding of appeal Medical Board. Application for RMB is routed through DG AFMS. The decision for grant of RMB is with DG AFMS, and is not a matter of right. RMBs are conducted at R &R Hospital Delhi Cantt and AFMC, Pune.


Stay During Medical Examination: The recommended candidates after the declaration of SSB results can stay in the Selection Centers in the lines earmarked for the recommended candidates for their medical examination and will be allotted fresh medical chest numbers for the purpose. Candidates who go for Appeal Medical Board or have to get their medical examination done at a later date, due to some unavoidable reasons, will do so under their own arrangements.

SSB selection Centers: Indian Army has three selection centers across the country. These are Selection Center East at Allahabad, Selection Center at Bhopal and Selection Center South at Bangalore. In all, there are 10 Service Selection Boards of Army organized as follows:

Selection Center East at Allahabad – Has five SSBs

Selection Center at Bhopal – Has three SSBs

Selection Center South at Bangalore – Has two SSBs

Indian Navy has two SSBs, one each at Bhopal and Bangalore and one naval Selection Board at Coimbatore. Three more boards are under formation at Visakhapatnam. Indian Air Force has three boards namely-

No 1 Air Force Selection Board at Dehradun

No 2 Air Force Selection Board at Mysore

No 1 Air Force Selection Board at Varanasi

Desired Officer Like Quality:


An often repeated question asked by most aspirants, in-fact everyone on the civil street it, “How the Armed Forces selects its OFFICERS”. This was not an openly known procedure till the early 90s. However, post liberalization from which even the Forces could not remain aloof, perhaps this last bastion too has fallen, and something are now known. Yet, what attributes are required, can only be told by someone who has been through this tough selection process, or by those who themselves select candidates since every officer has to do through this grind, he’s equally qualified to brief any aspirant, hence he should be your first guide. The procedure is same for all three Forces, less the IAF, which has an additional test the PABT, (also applicable for flying branches of IN and IA).

Selection in SSBs is every candidates desired goal, but then you cannot get up one fine morning and say that you will appear for the SSB to perform well, you have to prepare meticulously, well in advance. Ideally SSBs give 6 to 12 weeks notice to candidates, and this much time is adequate to prepare well. You are lucky to be competing in the world of Internet since in our times, we did not even have any book or coaching institute of SSB preparation, but then that’s an advantage available to all. However, remember no coaching or guide book can teach you to be successful, unless “You do not have it in You” , i.e., the will and desire to do well in life and achieved something worthwhile.

Starting Early


Your preparation, thus, starts the day you appear for the written exam as this advance preparation puts you ahead of the race, since most candidates wake up only after receiving the call letter, which leaves only enough time to brush up, if you are starting from scratch. Since well begun is half done, get hold of a good book, like you have in your hands right now and go through each page meticulously, taking notes along the way, identifying strong/ weak areas, where you need to focus more, or where you can just glance through.

Focus Areas


In my opinion, most candidates have no clues about the GTO Series of tests, plus they are also weak in CA/ GK and are unable to express themselves, due to lack of communication skills. Week after week, in my classes at the institutions where I have taught, mostly within service (sometimes in Civil Coaching Academies/ open Forums, Schools and Colleges and other Career Development Programmes), this question has followed me how to prepare and succeed in SSB Board/ Interviews. The answer is simple, first understand the requirement, then strive to work hard, master it either yourself or with external help of a Book/ Academy/ Coaching Institute.

SSB Qualifying Parameters

Coming back to the point, the difference in recommended and just rejected candidates is miniscule. However, to make the grade, you have qualify within the laid down parameters, which is loosely qualified by some as attaining a score of 40%, or 360, out of a possible 900, with each of the 4 major test accounting for 225 marks. What is important to understand here is that, out of the three independent assessors, two have to pass you individually, which means you ideally score 90 each, then even if third assessor has graded your score as 75 , there will be a chance of making it as in the final conference all three will be collectively evaluating, and a score of 105 or above here, will pull you through. This also breaks one more myth, that its only “English Speaking Convent Educated students” who clear SSBs. Friends, there is no “Shakespearian English” required in GTO or psychology Tests, but simple conversational words/ sentences.

No Place for Second Position in a War

Remember the great athlete Milkha Singh, who missed the bronze in the 1960 Rome Olympics by 1/100th of a second or our very own, Payoli Express, PT Usha, who missed and Asian Games gold by a similar margin. Were they crowned with the medals, just because they were very close, or missed it by a whisker. No. similarly, selection in Armed Forces is like going to war, where there’s no place for second position, whereas all the laurels and accolades go to the winner. So don’t think of coming second, when the difference is very less. Think, how a little more effort, an extra push here, a little have there, can put you top of the pedestal, where others will worship you. And remember, in battle, or in life’s adversities, troops (or people) only fallow the winners. So be a success in SSBs, and you will be a winner for life. Because, this never say die attitude, will be there with you, even after commissioning as an officer, since, there are many battles ahead, small or big, in your journey as an Armed Forces Officer.

OLQs Simplified

The succeeding paras have defined and elaborated on the required on the required OLQs however, I can simply say that OLQs cannot be taught- they are there within each one of us only difference being some are prominent and active, in others they are dormant and suppressed. Comparing OLQs to leadership qualities of some of the greats, to our mind comes the adage.

Some are born Great, some achieve Greatness, Some have Greatness thrust upon them”  

Now analyze this is context of the present and past achievers of this country ranging from  Swami Vevekanand to Mahatama Gadhi, Jamshedji Tata to APJ Abdul Kalam and Sachin Tendulkar to Col Rajyavardhan Rathore, and the answer is starting at you. You have to decide, under category of greats you fall success will be there waiting for you.

Analysis of 15 OLQ Factors

Factor 1: Planning and Organizing

This factor includes four qualities which are associated with the spiritual or mental aspects- i.e., your genetic being.

(i) Reasoning Ability (RA)– The ability of an individual to understand a given situation and thereafter come to a solution induced by rational thought process. In RA, SSB wants you to be receptive, have an inquisitive mind, logical thinking and the capability to see root cause of a problem, and then have the ability to solve it.

(ii) Effective Intelligence (EI)– Intelligence is the ability of a person to evolve solution to practical problems. Please do confuse this basic intelligence, which is measure using the intelligence tests (Verbal and Non Verbal). In evaluating your EI, SSB wants to see your EI, SSB wants to see your ability to solve daily problems of life and how you cope with difficult situations in daily life.

(iii)  Organizing Ability (OA)-   A good organizer is one who is able to use the available resources systematically, thus producing effective results. In OA, SSB is looking for ability to see how an individual can use material resources made available to you produce expected results.

 (iv) Power of Expression (PoE) – A good expression is the ability to convert your thoughts and ideas into comprehensible words and then put them across with ease clarity. PoE includes both verbal and written expression.


Factor 2: Social Adjustment:

This factor includes three qualities which are associated with the heart/ conscience of an individual. These are

(v) Social Adaptability (SA)– It is the ability of an individual to adapt himself to the environment around himself and adjust well with persons and social group of a diverse nature. SSB is interested in how you adapt to members of a group, interact with them, (and the evaluator) and whether you have tact in your behavior with others.

(vi) Cooperation (Co)– It is your attitude to participate willingly and harmoniously with members of a group, a way to achieve group social goals. What is important is to be a team player and try and be selfless. Remember, group aim/objectives are more important as compared to individual ones, SSB is keen to see your team attitude, not individual quests.

Factor 3: Social Effectiveness:

This is an important factor and has five qualities an outcome of the dynamic interaction of the above two factors, i.e., maxing of your head (mind) and heart-

(viii) Initiative (Inv)- It is the ability to originate an action. SSB wants to see if you take the lead in the right direction and are able to sustain it till the very end.

(ix)  Self Confidence(SC)- Confidence in one’s own abilities to meet stressful and unfamiliar situations, results from a good upbringing and independent thought and action.

(x) The Speed of Decision (SOD): It is the ability to come to a workable decision quickly. There are two parts, namely, appropriateness of decision and speed in arriving at it both equally important.

(xi)  Ability to influence the Group (AIG)- The way a person influences others in a group, to go for the goals set by him/her. What is seen by SSB is, if you can convince others to do as per your bidding (willingly), what you want them to do, minus any force/prodding.

(xi)  Liveliness (Liv): It is the capacity of a person to remain calm and cheerful atmosphere in the group. What is  seen is, if you gets unduly worried or disturbed when faced with difficult situations.

(xii) Courage (Cou): Courage stems from the ability to understand and take purposive risks. Take risks only where required and that too after carefull though. Some candidates take hasty decisions which may put the life of juniors/comrades in danger, which is not desirable. So, what is important is “take sustainable risks as required ”

(xiii) Stamina (Sta): The ability to withstand continued stain-both mental and physical. It also includes endurance for pain, hardship and agony again both physical and mental.

Factor 4: Dynamic:

This factor includes three qualities which are associated the limbs or the coordination between the mind and the body.

(xiv) Determination(Det): It is the ability to put in sustained efforts to achieved desired aims, in spite of hurdles and setbacks. The SSB wants to see whether you are focused, able to concentrate on the task and work thoroughly towards achieving the desired aims.

(xiii)  Courage (Cou): Courage stems from the ability to understand and take purposive risks. Take risks only where required and that too after careful though. Some candidates take hasty decisions which may put the life of juniors/comrades in danger, which is not desirable. So, what is important is  “take sustainable risks as required ”

 (xiv)  Stamina (Sta): The ability to withstand continued stain-both mental and physical. It also includes endurance for pain, hardship and agony again both physical and mental.

SSB Interview Tips


After clearing the written exam, candidates are called for an Interview conducted by various Service Selection Boards (SSBs). Ideally, you must start preparing for the SSB as soon as you make up your mind to give the written exam. 

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